Understanding the practical knowledge of pesticides will fundamentally avoid the occurrence of phytotoxicity, and is the necessary guarantee to ensure the safe, efficient and rational use of pesticides. Today, we will summarize the knowledge of pesticides for your reference.
Type and toxicity of pesticides
Pesticides can be generally classified into chemical pesticides, microbial pesticides and plant-derived pesticides. However, there are many varieties of pesticides, and their functions, functions and uses are different, and they can be classified from different angles.
According to the classification of control objects, pesticides are classified into insecticides , acaricides, fungicides , rodenticides, herbicides and plant growth regulators. Among them, insecticides are used to control pests such as agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and sanitation. It has many varieties, wide application and rapid development. Insecticides and acaricides can be further divided into: stomach poisons, contact agents, systemic agents, fumigants, antifeedants, repellents, sticking agents, insect growth regulators, depending on the mode of action. Bactericides can be classified into protective agents, therapeutic agents, and eradicators. Herbicides can be classified into systemic herbicides and contact herbicides, and are classified into selective herbicides and herbicides according to their properties.
Pesticides are toxic substances, and the toxicity of pesticides is the main indicator of whether it can harm the environment and human and animal safety. Acute toxicity is a common indicator for measuring the strength of pesticides. The grading standard for pesticide toxicity in China is five grades: highly toxic, highly toxic, moderately toxic, low toxic and slightly toxic.
Introduction to common pesticide classification
Commonly used insecticides, acaricides , fungicides, nematicides, herbicides , rodenticides and plant growth regulators.
(1) Insecticide: an agent for controlling pests.
The activity of avidin is 10-100 times higher than that of avermectin, killing and killing nematode, and the insecticidal spectrum is broadened; the stomach poisoning effect is mainly combined with contact; the pests irreversibly paralyze, stop eating, 2 - After 4 days, the death rate is slower; the duration of the effect is long, the pests are 10-15 days, and the cockroaches are 15-25 days. It has no systemic properties for crops, but can penetrate into epidermal tissues; it has extremely high activity against lepidopteran pests, mites, coleoptera and homopteran pests, and it is not easy to make pests resistant to insects; Degradation; high safety for all crops at protected sites or 10 times the recommended dosage; a second insecticidal peak occurs over 10 days;
Nicotinic nicotine; contact, stomach poisoning and systemic; pest paralysis death; good quick-acting, high control effect in 1 day, residual period up to 25 days; high temperature insecticidal effect; sucking mouth Insect pests; easily absorbed by crops and distributed to the top, with rooting action;
Tebufenozide promotes the lepidopteran larvae molting; it is opposite to other larvae inhibiting the action of larvae; it is effective for both older and younger larvae; it stops feeding for 6-8 hours (stomach toxicity), which is more effective than molting inhibitors. Rapidly, dying after 3 to 4 days; no phytotoxicity, safe for crops, no residual plaques;
When the temperature of malathion is low, the virulence will decrease, and the dosage or concentration of the drug can be appropriately increased; the chewing mouthparts and the sucking mouthparts pests; the contact and stomach toxicity, certain fumigation and osmosis; knocking down the pests Strong, high temperature effect; short residual period; sorghum, melon beans and pears, grapes, cherries and other varieties susceptible to phytotoxicity, should be used with caution; 10 days before harvesting.
When the larvae of the young larvae are used, the older the larvae, the worse the control effect. Inhibition of chitin synthesis; stomach toxicity, can invade the epidermis of insects and eggs, but no systemic action; spray on the back of plant leaves; efficacy period of up to 30 days, resistant to rain erosion; safe against natural enemies It has high activity against lepidoptera and mosquito larvae; it begins to die 3 days after the drug, and reaches the peak of death in 5 days; it is ineffective against adults;
Quinofos insecticidal and acaricidal action, has stomach poisoning and contact killing effect, no systemic and fumigation properties; good permeability, certain egg-killing effect, rapid degradation on plants, short residual period; prevention of chewing and Sucking pests works well
Acetamidine chlorinated nicotine pyridine; contact and stomach toxicity, good systemic activity; inhibition of acetylcholine receptor activity; effective control of aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies, scales and lepidoptera in Hemiptera The target leaf miner, small insectivore and coleoptera, such as beetle, thrips and other pests; granules for soil treatment, can control underground pests; quick-acting, long-lasting effect, up to 20 days;
Buprofezin inhibits chitin synthesis and interferes with metabolism; it can be effective 3-7 days after drug administration, has no direct lethal effect on adults, but can shorten its life span, reduce the amount of eggs laid, and produce more sterile eggs, larvae Even if it hatches, it will die soon. It has good control effect on the larvae, leafhoppers, whiteflies and scale insects of Hemiptera, with a potency period of more than 30 days; it can not be used by toxic soil method; it should not be directly contacted with cabbage or radish, otherwise brown spots will appear. And chlorophyll and other phytotoxicity.
It has a certain penetration and conduction activity and is fast-acting; it is mainly used for rice control of rice planthoppers and spider mites, and can be combined with locusts; it can not be used simultaneously with enemy scorpions, and must be separated by 10 days. Above; the agent has phytotoxicity to cockroaches and should not be used.
The phoxim insecticide spectrum is broad, and the knockdown force is strong. It is mainly caused by contact and stomach toxicity. It has no systemic action and is effective for the pteridophyte larvae. It also has a certain killing effect on the eggs. The light is unstable. Used in the evening or evening, the residual period is short; in the soil, the residual period is very long, suitable for controlling underground pests; cucumber and kidney beans are sensitive to phoxim, easy to produce phytotoxicity, sensitive to sorghum, not suitable for spraying; corn field can only Use granules to control corn mash, do not spray to control mites, armyworms, etc. Stop using it 5 days before harvest.
Killing phosphorus touch, stomach poison and osmotic effect; chewing and sucking mouthparts pests, have special effects on scale insects, have certain control effects on mites; residual effect period is 10-20 days; concentration in orchard should not be too high, Otherwise it will cause brown spots;
Bifenthrin insecticide, acaricide; stomach poisoning and contact killing; rapid action, long-lasting effect; activity several times higher than other pyrethroids; vegetables are stopped 4 days before harvest; It is used in spring and autumn.
It has a rapid action; contact and stomach toxicity, and is an excellent ovicidal agent, which can penetrate into plants and move from bottom to top with body fluids;
Chlorpyrifos (Lesburn, chlorpyrifos, poisonous silk) broad spectrum, stomach poisoning, contact and fumigation; good effect on underground pests; coleoptera, lepidopteran pests and pests; melon seedlings sensitive;
Cypermethrin contact, stomach toxicity, and repellent effect, strong knockdown, fast insecticidal; special effects on lepidopteran pests, and effective against aphids and small green leafhoppers. The cockroach and blind cockroach have poor control effect; the residual period is relatively; the penetrating power is weak, and the internal pollution of the fruit is less;
The contact action of deltamethrin has both stomach toxicity, repellent and antifeedant effects; lepidopteran larvae have special effects and are ineffective against mites; penetrability is weak and only pollutes the skin;
Cyflumuron (Kung Fu, PP321) has strong contact and stomach toxic effects on pests and mites, and also has repellent effect; it is resistant to rain erosion; it can not be used for soil treatment;
Cyfluthrin (cypermethrin, Baishu De) contact and stomach poison; a variety of lepidopteran larvae have a good effect; egg killing; repellent effect;
Bacillus thuringiensis bacterial; stomach poison, producing bacterial toxins; slower effect; residual effect period of about 10 days; the higher the temperature, the more food, the better the effect; cabbage caterpillar, diamondback moth, Spodoptera litura, beet armyworm, Larvae of Lepidoptera pests such as Spodoptera frugiperda; insecticidal effects can be exerted above 30 Â°C; use 2 to 3 days in advance
Abamectin broad-spectrum antibiotic insecticides, acaricides; stomach poisoning and contact killing, repellent;
Tetra-acetaldehyde is very attractive; spring, autumn and rainy season; seedlings after sowing or transplanting; low temperature (below 1.5 Â°C) or high temperature (above 35 Â°C) due to weak snail activity, affecting the control effect;
Dibutyl ether urea thiourea insecticide, acaricide; used in cotton, fruits, vegetables and tea trees; with systemic and fumigation, converted to insecticidal activity under ultraviolet light, should be used on sunny days Resistant aphids, big leafhoppers, and whitefly; control of Plutella xylostella, Pieris rapae, and Noctuidae;
The chitinase synthase of diflubenzuron is inhibited; it causes adult sterility, and has toxic effects on larvae, pupa, adults and eggs; the control effect on larvae of Lepidoptera and Diptera is more significant.
Flumazenil insecticidal and ovicidal activity, and quick-acting, especially control of cotton bollworm; a variety of Coleoptera, Diptera, Homoptera insects inhibit pest eating speed; faster knockdown.
(2) Acaricide: an agent used to control pests. There is a specific acaricide and an insecticide and acaricide that also has an insecticidal effect.
å“’èž¨çµ broad-spectrum, high-efficiency, contact-killing; egg, ruthenium and sputum; long-acting and residual effect period; both sides should be sprayed evenly
Acetylene contact and stomach toxicity; poor effect on eggs; good effect above 20 Â°C, below 20 Â°C with decreasing temperature; residual effect period up to 15 to 25 days; used under high temperature, high humidity conditions, must be low concentration
Spraying tetracycline winter eggs before hatching can prevent the herbivorous leafhoppers throughout the season; it has special effects on the whole clawed cockroach (Apple red spider), has no effect on predatory mites and beneficial insects; organic nitrogen heterocyclics; contact The effect is to kill the eggs and kill the young, if the cockroaches, but the effect on the cockroaches is poor. The effective period can reach 50-60 days; the apple red spider is controlled, and the wintering egg is applied in the early incubation period before flowering, and the red spider is controlled, and the wintering generation is applied at the peak of the ovulation spawning after the falling flower; the drug effect is slow. The highest acaricidal activity can be achieved within 2-3 weeks after administration. The application in the early incubation period is not affected by the temperature, and can be mixed with the stone sulfur mixture; it should be prevented from freezing and direct sunlight during storage;
Thiacinone is penetrating to the epidermal layer of plants and has no systemic conduction. It has strong characteristics of killing eggs and killing cockroaches. It is not effective for adult mites, but it has the effect of inhibiting hatching. For non-temperature-sensitive acaricides, the efficacy can be maintained for about 50 days, and the efficacy of drugs is slow. The principle of early maturity; can be mixed with a variety of pesticides such as Bordeaux liquid, stone sulphur stone. Good control effect on leaf mites, poor resistance to rust and cockroaches;
Triazole ring tin is strong in contact; broad spectrum can kill ruthenium, adult mites and summer eggs, and is ineffective for winter eggs. Stable to light, long residual period, safe for crops; spray on sweet orange at 32 Â°C or above, causing phytotoxicity to new shoots and young leaves, should be avoided during high temperature seasons.
Cymethrin has a certain acaricidal activity but no fluoride-containing nerve agent; the residual effect period is longer; it is repelled from feeding and spawning, non-temperature sensitive; Lepidoptera; not used as a special acaricide; In about 10 days.
(3) bactericide: an agent for controlling phytopathogenic microorganisms.
Daisen zinc broad spectrum; downy mildew, Phytophthora infestans and anthracnose; etc.; early use of the disease, short duration; melon mites, blight, keratosis, blight, anthracnose, downy mildew Diseases and other diseases.
Anthracnose, epidemic disease, downy mildew, leaf spot, black spot disease, etc. of mancoze, zinc, melon, etc.; avoiding medication at high temperature;
Metformin broad spectrum; protection and treatment; gray mold, powdery mildew, anthracnose, brown spot, leaf mold, etc.; root irrigation, control of blight; can be mixed with alkaline pesticides such as stone sulfur mixture, but Can not be mixed with copper-containing preparations, or used immediately before and after, can not be used alone for a long time; stop using 14 days before harvest; sweet potato, peach; rice can prevent rice blast and sheath blight during the period from the ear to the booting stage; Rape can be used to control sclerotinia in the flowering stage; the soybean podging period is sprayed to prevent gray spot disease;
Broad spectrum of chlorothalonil; with preventive effect, no systemic conduction; not easy to be washed by rain, long residual period; tomato, mushroom, strawberry, tea tree, peach, tobacco, medicinal damage to certain apples and grape varieties; Potato late blight, early blight and gray mold before the closure; prevention of grape anthracnose, powdery mildew and fruit rot in 2 weeks after flowering; prevention and control of brown rot, scab in the bud stage and falling flowers The perforation disease is usually in the case of falling flowers; the control of strawberry gray mold, leaf blight, leaf coke and powdery mildew is usually sprayed once in the early, middle and early stages of flowering;
The metalaxyl spirit has conduction, protection and treatment; the residual effect period is 10 to 14 days; the melons are downy mildew, Phytophthora and Pythium;
Carbendazim broad spectrum, protection and treatment; effective against many ascomycetes and deuteromycetes, control of melon wilt, blight, anthracnose, powdery mildew, downy mildew, leaf spot, etc.; peach, tobacco, Tomato; wheat in the initial flowering period spray control of scab; spray from the ear to the booting stage can prevent sheath blight;
Pythium protection and treatment; long-lasting effect, and can prevent the development of lesions; leaf and root systemic; special effects on diseases caused by Botrytis and Sclerotinia, such as under high humidity and low temperature conditions Botrytis, sclerotinia and pathogens resistant to thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim have special effects; should not be mixed with organophosphorus pesticides; spray under seedlings, weak seedlings, high temperature and high humidity conditions, pay attention to Drug concentration to avoid phytotoxicity; strawberries, peaches and cherries;
Isobacteria broad-spectrum, contact-killing, protection and treatment, root absorption for therapeutic effects; diseases caused by Botrytis, Candida, Sclerotinia, Alternaria, etc., especially for controlling gray mold, sclerotinia, Special effects of early blight; cherry, peach, and plum; prevention and control of grape gray mold can be applied once every 10 days before the grape torus falls off, the grape bunch stops growing, begins to mature, and harvested; The beginning of spraying; stone fruit (apricot, cherry, peach, plum, etc.) flower rot, gray star disease, gray mold, flower rot in the beginning of flowering and flowering period of the fruit;
Fluorosilazole broad-spectrum, systemic triazoles; alleviation caused by ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and deuteromycetes have special effects; the duration of effect is about 7 days; under variable climatic conditions and effective doses for controlling diseases, No phytotoxicity;
Nitrile triazole, systemic, protective and therapeutic; powdery mildew, rust, scab, rot, etc.; safe for crops, stimulate growth;
Multi-antibiotics broad-spectrum antibiotics, systemic conduction; interfering with the cell wall chitin, inhibiting spore formation and disease spot enlargement;
Noxious Mn-Zn contact sterilization and systemic conduction; diseases caused by oomycetes and downy mildew have special effects; powdery mildew, downy mildew, disease;
Fungal diseases such as Phytophthora manganese, Phytophthora, and Cercospora, such as Phytophthora and Downy mildew, have special effects; they are stopped 7 to 14 days before harvesting; the agent is first formulated into a mother liquor;
Prochloraz protection and treatment; special effects on various diseases caused by ascomycetes and deuteromycetes; no systemic effect, but with certain conductivity, rice seedling disease, mango anthracnose, citrus citrinum Diseases and anthrax and rot, banana anthracnose and crown rot have good control effects, and can also be used for post-harvest treatment of fruits to prevent diseases during storage. In addition, through seed treatment, it has good activity against many species of transmission and soil fax diseases. When used alone, it has good control effect on spot disease, mildew rot, blight, leaf blight, stripe disease, flax leaf spot and blight, mixed with wilting or carbendazim, for black Spike and smut have excellent control effects;
The fungicide soil is disinfected and sterilized; it can be absorbed by roots and moved within the roots, and two kinds of glycosides are metabolized in the plants to improve physiological activity; soil-borne diseases such as rot disease and Fusarium caused by rot, Fusarium, etc. , Fusarium wilt, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, etc.; wet mixed or suffocating seeds are prone to phytotoxicity; the dosage should be strictly controlled to prevent inhibition of crop growth;
Tebuconazole broad-spectrum triazoles; promote growth, increase yield; sorghum, tea; powdery mildew, rust fungus, Fusarium, genus genus and genus
Essence cream has high control effect against downy mildew pathogens, long-lasting effect; tobacco; concurrent treatment of multiple secondary diseases such as brown spot disease, black rot, etc.
The bactericidal spectrum of difenoconazole has a wide range of protection, treatment and systemic activity; it improves crop yield and quality.
Pyrimethanil is an anilinopyrimidine; it has the highest activity in controlling gray mold; inhibits the production of infecting enzyme; systemic conduction and fumigation, and quickly reaches the flower, young fruit and other parts of the plant after application; the drug is faster and more stable. Insensitive to temperature; gray mold and fruit tree scab, spotted leaf disease, etc.; open field vegetables should be selected in the morning and evening, the wind is small, low temperature; when the temperature is higher than 28 degrees, the application should be stopped.
Fumei double organic sulfur protective fungicide, moderately toxic; has a certain permeability, has a long-lasting effect in the soil; is less safe for crops, susceptible to phytotoxicity in young leaves and young fruit; broad-spectrum fungicide Currently, it is mainly used to control grape white rot, anthracnose, pear black spot disease, black spot disease, early apple leaf disease, jujube brown spot disease, rotten fruit disease, vegetable blight, root rot, leaf spot, Gray mold, etc.;
Leaf azole protection and treatment; safe for fish; long-lasting effect, safe for crops; strong systemic conductivity; special effects on crop bacterial diseases; buckwheat blight, bacterial streaks and citrus ulcers The disease has excellent preventive and therapeutic effects; there is no effect on the efficacy of the rain after 4 hours of spraying.
Jinggangmycin has strong systemic absorption and is easily absorbed by cells; after sheathing, it is until the early stage of heading or early stage; rice smut, at the booting stage of rice; prevention and control of cotton blight; Control of blight;
Dilute morpholine cinnamic acid derivatives have strong activity against fungi of Phytophthora and Phytophthora; cause decomposition of sporangia wall; have effects on various stages of oomycete life history, especially in sporangia and eggs The stage of spore formation is more sensitive; it is more systemic and can enter various parts of the plant; when cucumber, pepper, cruciferous vegetables, etc., the amount of liquid spray and the amount of medicine are low.
Fusarium has protective, therapeutic and stimulating growth; inhibits cell membrane; algae; ideal for vegetable downy mildew, blight, rickets, tomato late blight, eggplant or tomato plague, cruciferous white rust, etc.; The security interval is 3 days.
(4) Herbicides: Medicaments used to control weeds in garden fields.
Butachlor (Marschel, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos) selective pre-emergence; bud and root absorption, effective for weeds before and before the second leaf stage; no effect on post-emergence crops; Grass, some sedge weeds and some broad-leaved weeds; melon weeds can be applied 1 to 2 days before seedling or transplanting;
Metolachlor (Dur, DÃ¼rr, Methotrexate, Rice Enthene) selective pre-emergence soil treatment agent; bud sheath (monocotyledon) or shoot, radicle (dicotyledon) absorption; peanut, soybean Weeding crops such as vegetables, corn, sugar cane, melon and other dry crops; the soil moisture must be maintained after the medicine;
Dimethylprednisolone (Shi Tianbu, Shicaitong, pendimethalin) inhibits meristematic cell division. Does not affect the germination of weed seeds. In the process of germination of weed seeds, the shoots, stems and roots act after absorption; in soybeans, corn, cotton, tobacco, peanuts and various vegetables and orchards, we control annual grass weeds and some broadleaf weeds; The effect of controlling monocotyledon weeds is better than that of dicotyledon; it is applied after watering;
Selective stem and leaf treatment agent for inducing conduction (fine flufenacil); grass weed; stem, leaf absorption, and hydrolysis to acid; broadleaf crop; grass weed; role The speed is slow; the retention period can be up to 45 days; when the humidity is high, the herbicidal effect is good;
High-efficiency turfgrass (high-efficiency flupirtine, sclerophyllin, high-efficiency pirin) systemic selective herbicides; stem and leaf treatment; long residual period; effective in summer 1 week, effective in winter 20 days; Broadleaf crop field; grass weed; ineffective for broadleaf weeds and sedge weeds; stop taking medicine 60 days before harvest;
Jinghecaoke (Quinhhein, Hecaoke) systemic selective herbicide; 2 days, the new leaves turn yellow; 1 to 2 hours even if it rains, does not affect the herbicidal effect; broadleaf crop; Gramineae Weeds; melons, soybeans, peanuts and vegetable fields; ineffective against sedge weeds and broadleaf weeds;
Weiba (Puma, Qiling, Gaoxazole and Herbain) selectively inhaled post-emergence herbicides; flexible during application period (weed from one leaf to the end of tillering), safe for crops, and no residue for sputum; Melons, vegetables, ornamental plants, orchards, tea gardens, medicinal plants to control grass weeds;
The herbicide-selective selective herbicides of chlorpyrifos (excavation, straw, straw, and glutinous rice); bud and root absorption; absorption of medicinal agents after seed germination; The effect is remarkable, the effect of the three-leaf stage is significantly reduced; rice, vegetables, barley, rapeseed, and milk vetch are weeding. The use of melon is generally in the pre-emergence seedling;
(5) Nematicide: an agent for controlling phytopathogenic nematodes. Such as thiazolyl and the like.
(6) Rodenticide: an agent for controlling rodents. Such as the enemy sodium salt, fluconne and so on.
(7) Plant growth regulator: an agent for promoting or inhibiting plant growth and development. Such as gibberellin, ethephon and so on.
Reasonable drug selection should be "five look"
Look at the object. There are many varieties of pesticides on the market, the quality of pesticides is uneven, and the control objects are also very different. It is necessary to select pesticides according to the target of prevention and treatment, to achieve symptomatic medication and to avoid blind medication. Try to choose pesticides with little killing effect on natural enemies. For example, the insects that bite the leaves can use the agent with strong stomach toxicity, such as the cabbage caterpillar, you can choose the drug with stomach toxicity such as dichlorvos; the pests that suck the plant juice should use the systemic drugs, like mites, locusts, leaveså†… A systemic drug such as imidacloprid can be used.
Second, look at the drug. When purchasing pesticides, it is necessary to determine the types of pesticides according to the types of pests and diseases to be controlled, what to treat and what to treat. It is preferred to use safe, efficient and economical low-toxic and low-residue counterpart pesticides, especially biological pesticides, to gradually eliminate high-toxic, high-residue broad-spectrum pesticides, and resolutely not to ban pesticides by the state.
Three look at the packaging. To purchase and use pesticides, it is necessary to carefully identify the label and description of the pesticide. For the qualified commodity pesticides, the label and the manual are marked with the pesticide name, active ingredient, registered trademark, batch number, date of manufacture, shelf life and the number of pesticide registration certificate of the three licenses. Production approval certificate number and product standard number, with product manual and certificate.
Do not buy pesticides that are not "three certificates" and that do not have "three certificates". In addition, there is a careful inspection of the outer packaging of the pesticide. Do not buy any pesticides whose labels and instructions are unclear or have no formal label. In addition to hygienic pesticides, there is a non-fading characteristic color marking strip parallel to the bottom edge of the pesticide label to indicate different types of pesticides. The herbicide is green; the insecticide, acaricide and molluscicide are red; the fungicide and nematicide are black; the plant growth regulator is dark yellow; the rodenticide is blue.
Four look at the appearance. If the powder, wettable powder, and soluble powder have agglomeration; the water agent has turbidity; the emulsifiable concentrate is opaque; the powder is too much in the granules, and the above pesticides are not suitable for purchase of pesticides or inferior pesticides. In addition, the purchase of pesticides should pay attention to more than one pesticide or one multi-drug of pesticides, do not buy the wrong, especially insecticides. Such as Dagongchen, four seasons red, one pass net, phlegm and imidacloprid WP, â€‹â€‹belong to more than one drug; and the same pesticide called rice worm, some are insecticide and BT compound, some are The combination of pyrethroid pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides, and some organic phosphorus mixtures, etc., although the drug name is the same, its active ingredients are completely different.
Five to see the dosage form. Common dosage forms of pesticides include emulsifiable concentrates, wettable powders, suspending agents, water emulsions, microemulsions, granules, water dispersing agents and smoke agents. Environmentally friendly dosage forms such as water emulsions, microemulsions and water-soluble granules should be preferred.
Safe dispensing puts "two customs"
The first is to use the amount of quasi-drugs. According to the requirements of the plant protection department or according to the recommended dosage on the pesticide label, accurately weigh the amount of the drug and the amount of water, do not mix the pesticides at will, or increase the dosage.
The second is to use the "secondary method" to dilute the off. First use a small amount of water to dilute the pesticide into a "mother liquor", and then dilute the "mother liquor" to the required concentration; mix the soil, sand and other pesticides. The pesticide preparation should be diluted to a "mother powder" with a small amount of diluted carrier (fine soil, fine sand, solid fertilizer, etc.), and then diluted to the required amount.
Pay attention to "six points" in scientific medication
(1) Appropriate use of drugs. Dosage should avoid sensitive periods of sensitive crops and crops to prevent phytotoxicity. According to the occurrence characteristics of diseases, insects and grasses and the different characteristics of the medicines, the best time to apply the medicine. Neither can you simply emphasize "governing the morning and treating the small", nor can you miss the favorable period. Especially for herbicides, it is necessary to look at the grass and look at the seedlings. For example, pre-emergence herbicides must not be used after germination. Bactericides are generally applied at the onset of the disease, and insecticides are generally applied during the egg hatching period or the younger larval stage. For example, the prevention and treatment of rice panicle neck sputum is based on the period of drug use, early use of early breakage, late use of late drug, and another drug in the same stage. The release of the rodenticide bait should be best in the rodent fasting stage and before the mass reproduction, so the spring rodent control effect is the best. For the slow-acting characteristics of bio-pesticides, it can be applied in advance.
(2) Symptomatic administration. First of all, it is necessary to accurately identify the types of pests and diseases, determine the key control targets, and select appropriate pesticide varieties and dosage forms according to the occurrence period and degree of occurrence. To prevent and treat diseases, spray protective agents before the disease occurs. After the disease occurs, spray the therapeutic agent. To control diseases, we must grasp the principle of first protection and treatment, seize the best timing of application, and continue to use drugs several times to achieve good results.
(3) Rational use of drugs. In the case of ensuring the control effect, do not blindly increase the dose, concentration and frequency of application. Some farmers' friends are used to increasing the amount of drugs used and the number of uses when using pesticides. Increasing the amount of drug is easy to cause resistance to bacteria and pests. In severe cases, phytotoxicity may occur, resulting in excessive pesticide residues in agricultural products. In the effective concentration range, low-concentration drugs should be used as much as possible for prevention and control. The number of prevention and treatment should be determined according to the residual period of the drug and the degree of occurrence of pests and diseases, to prevent regular application of drugs, to prevent the drug from being called, and not to drop the drug. Reasonable practice.
(4) Appropriate application of drugs. When applying medicine in the field, be careful and pay attention to quality. Pesticide is used in the critical area according to the part of the pest that is harmful to the crop. Different pesticide formulations should use different methods of application. Generally speaking, emulsifiable concentrates, wettable powders, and water-based agents are mainly sprayed; granules are mainly applied by spreading or deep application; powders are mainly based on toxic soil; and highly medicinal agents can be sprayed or poured. , poisoning soil law, etc.; contact agents are mainly spray. Pesticides with different mechanisms of action should also adopt different methods of application to achieve the highest control effect.
According to the occurrence of the disease, the activity of the pests, and the different pesticide dosage forms, different application methods and application time are selected to affect the pests of the upper leaves, mainly by spraying, drilling or pests at the base of the crop. The poisonous soil method or splashing is the main. Any pest that is harmful at night will have a better effect in the evening.
In addition, attention should also be paid to the quality of spraying. For example, when spraying soil-blocking herbicides, it is necessary to spray enough liquid to form a closed film. Otherwise, the liquid is only distributed in a dot shape, which does not achieve the effect of blocking weeding. When spraying insecticides and fungicides, it is necessary to apply uniformity evenly, so that the liquid is evenly distributed on the foliage, leaf back or stem base. Otherwise, new insect sources and bacterial sources are formed on the spot, causing the harm to occur again. .
(5) Reasonable rotation and mixing of pesticides. Practice has proved that long-term continuous use of a single pesticide species in the same place is likely to cause resistance to pests such as pests and diseases. In particular, some pyrethroid insecticides and systemic fungicides have been used continuously for several years, and the control effect has been greatly reduced. However, if the rotation of different pesticides with different properties is used, the control effect of the pesticide will be improved. The rational mixing of pesticides can not only improve the control effect, but also expand the control objects and delay the development of resistance to pests and diseases. But not blindly mixed. Otherwise, it will not only cause waste, but also reduce the efficacy of the drug, and even cause adverse consequences such as poisoning of humans and animals.
When mixing, you must pay attention to: First, pesticides that are decomposed and failed by alkaline substances cannot be mixed with alkaline pesticides, fertilizers or alkaline substances. Once mixed, these pesticides will quickly decompose and fail. Second, the chemical reaction will occur after mixing, so that pesticides and fertilizers that cause plant phytotoxicity cannot be mixed with each other. Third, pesticide formulations or fertilizers that exhibit emulsion damage after mixing cannot be mixed with each other. The fourth is a pesticide dosage form that produces flocculation or a large amount of precipitation after mixing, and cannot be mixed with each other.
In addition, vegetable oil additives and silicone additives have the properties of permeability and adhesion, and proper selection can effectively improve the efficacy and reduce the amount of chemical pesticides.
(6) Select the right medicine device. Consider appropriate control equipment, control sites, crop types and growth conditions, pesticide dosage forms, control methods, and scale of control. There are many types of pesticide spray equipment in China, and it is necessary to select the medicines produced by regular manufacturers and qualified by the quality inspection department. Pay attention to the use and maintenance of the product, avoid running, running, dripping, leaking, and regularly replace worn nozzles. There are two common types of nozzles, one is a fan-shaped nozzle, the spray surface is fan-shaped, the droplets are larger, the drift is less, suitable for spraying herbicides; the other is a hollow conical nozzle, which is more like a droplet. Fine, easy to drift, the droplets can contact the leaves from more directions, suitable for spraying insecticide on the foliar surface, not suitable for spraying herbicides. If the herbicide is sprayed with such a nozzle, it is easy to cause drifting phytotoxicity. The application equipment cannot be mixed. Under normal circumstances, the sprayer that sprays the pesticide and the bactericide can spray other insecticides and bactericides after three times of cleaning, but the sprayer that sprays the herbicide should be used exclusively and cannot be used for spraying. Apply other types of pesticides.
Symptoms of pesticide phytotoxicity
The use of pesticides in crops generally has the following symptoms when phytotoxicity occurs:
1, spots such phytotoxicity is mainly manifested in the leaves of the crop, and sometimes also on the stalk or fruit epidermis.
2. The yellowing was observed in the stems and leaves of the plants, and the yellowing of the leaves was more, mainly due to the fact that pesticides and pesticides hindered the normal photosynthesis of chlorophyll.
3. Malformations can be expressed in the stems and roots of plants. Common malformations include leaf rolling, clumping, swollen roots, deformed ears, and deformed fruit.
4, withered such phytotoxicity often shows the whole plant, most of which is caused by improper use of herbicides.
5, growth stagnation of these phytotoxicity is to inhibit the normal growth of the crop, so that the whole plant grows slowly, the general herbicide phytotoxicity more or less have inhibited crop growth.
6. Infertility These phytotoxics are infertility caused by improper use of the crop during the reproductive season.
7, shedding of these phytotoxics are mostly manifested in fruit trees and dicotyledons, with symptoms such as falling leaves, falling flowers, and falling fruits.
8, inferior fruit This kind of phytotoxicity is mainly manifested in the fruit of the plant, so that the fruit volume becomes smaller, the fruit surface is abnormal, the quality is deteriorated, and the edible value is affected.
Causes of pesticide damage
1. Pesticide aspects
(1) Physicochemical properties of pesticides. Under normal circumstances, pesticides have certain physiological effects on crops. Some broad-spectrum herbicides are sprayed onto the green parts of the crops. After absorption, they interfere with the biosynthesis of phenylalanine in the plants, causing the stems and leaves of the plants to be yellow and the roots to rot and die.
(2) Quality of pesticides. The use of poor quality, pesticides containing impurities or deterioration is an important factor causing phytotoxicity.
(3) Improper use of mixing. Improper mixing between pesticides is also a factor in causing phytotoxicity. For example, the combination of enemy and dimethoate can cause rice phytotoxicity.
(4) The concentration of the drug solution. The dosage and spray concentration of pesticides exceed the tolerance of plants and can also cause phytotoxicity.
(5) The number of spraying. Heavy spray and continuous spray can cause phytotoxicity. For example, when using quick-twisting to control soybean aphids, heavy spray will cause soybean damage.
(6) Application method. The application method has certain relationship with the crop phytotoxicity. For example, when the butachlor is used in the rice field, the stem and leaf spray is more likely to cause phytotoxicity than the poisonous soil method.
2, crop aspects
(1) Crop types and varieties. Different crops show varying degrees of resistance and sensitivity to each pesticide.
(2) The growth period of the crop. The sensitive response of crops to different pesticides during the different growth stages is quite different.
(3) Plant parts. There is a large difference in sensitivity to the drug between the various parts of the crop.
(4) Crop growth. Crops are weak, and poor resistance can also cause phytotoxicity. For example, the application of herbicides before rice seedling transplanting can cause phytotoxicity and it is not easy to produce phytotoxicity after slow seedlings.
3. Environmental aspects
(1) Temperature. The temperature of the water directly affects the activity of the pesticide, and it is also related to the safety of the crop. The high activity of pesticides in high temperature environment causes some pesticides to cause phytotoxicity. When the temperature is higher than 35 degrees, it should not be used. In addition, under low temperature conditions, although the pesticide activity is low, the crop resistance is low, and it is easy to cause phytotoxicity.
(2) Humidity and rainfall. Excessive humidity and excessive moisture are one of the causes of phytotoxicity.
(3) Wind and wind direction. When spraying herbicides, the wind can cause the herbicide to float and cause damage to sensitive crops.
(4) Soil texture. The soil with high viscosity and high organic matter has strong adhesion to pesticides. The agent has little mobility in the soil and is not easy to cause phytotoxicity. In soils with low organic matter content, crops on sandy soil are prone to phytotoxicity.
Method of preventing phytotoxicity
Prevention of phytotoxicity should be based on the principle of prevention and prevention. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively consider various factors to prevent prevention.
1. Fully understand the nature of the agent. It is necessary to consider whether the application of the drug is correct, strictly control the dosage and concentration, select the correct period and method of use, carefully read the precautions for the use of the drug, and do not arbitrarily increase the dosage and change the method of use.
2. Fully understand the quality of the drug. If the suspension rate of the wettable powder and the suspension is decreased, the stability of the emulsion is poor, there is stratification, and most of the precipitation or precipitation of many crystals will cause phytotoxicity and should be avoided.
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